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The Hopi Indians, it means good, peaceful, or wise. They came from a Southern group called Pueblo. And there language is different, they live in the northeast of Arizona at the end of the Black Mesa.
The Hopi lived in Pueblo's that are made of stones and mud and are a several stories high. In the underground part of their houses there was something called The Kivas. It was an underground chamber that was for religious ceremonies. In the middle of the floor there was a fire pit. To get to the South end where a bench was placed for spectators you had to climb down a ladder. And at the North part was a small hole in the floor as a reminder of Sipapu.
: A picture of the Hopi House.
The Hopi raised corn and maize as their basic food. They used the corn in religious ceremonies, and there were 24 different kinds of corn. The also grew beans, squash, melons, pumpkin, and fruit.
The women own the land and the house, they cooked and weaved baskets. The men plant and harvest, weave clothing, and perform the ceremonies.
The women wore a cotton robe with an embroidered belt. And the men wore a straight sleeve or a sleeveless shirt, it was worn like a poncho. They also wore leggings that were cut off right at the knee. And for shoes they wore moccasins made of deer skin.
Tools and Weapons
The Hopi hunters used a bow and arrow. They didn't go to war often. Their tools included wooden farm implements, spindle and looms for weaving clothing.
When a child was born they get a special blanket and a perfect ear of corn. On the 20th day of them being alive the Hopi bring the baby to the top of the mesa cliff, when the sun hits the baby, they give it its' name. And the powerful ancestor spirits help bring them rain and help grow the crops.
The story about the Cheveyo is about an ogre, and it was used to scare the children.
In 1680, the Pueblo people had to work together to drive away the Spanish colonists. The Hopi rose against the Spanish attacking missions, killing friars and destroying the Catholic churches. By the 17th century the Spanish failed to reestablish their presence in the Hopi country.
- First outsiders arrive: Spanish explorers.
- Catholic priests establish mission at Awatovi.
- Hopi joined Puebloans of New Mexico in Pueblo Revolt again the Spanish of the Southwest.
- Hopi fell under Mexican jurisdiction.
- Hopi territory became part of the ever-expanding United States.
- First Hopi Indian agent appointed by U. S. Government.
- Indian Agency established in Keams Canyon.
- 2.5 million acre Hopi Reservation established.
- Oraibi village split caused by tensions between those who were sympathetic to White ways and people who were not.
- Indian Reorganization Act reflects the more sympathetic sentiments of the U. S. Government.
- First Hopi Tribal Council formed.
- While Tribal Council represents Hopi people in matters external to the tribe, Hopi villages are still more or less independent, following traditional Hopi ways. In fact, Oraibi remains strictly traditional, not even accepting any money from the tribe.
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